Tissue-resident memory CD8 T-cell responses elicited by a single injection of a multi-target COVID-19 vaccine

The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) which enters the body principally through the nasal and larynx mucosa and progress to the lungs through the respiratory tract. SARS-CoV-2 replicates efficiently in respiratory epithelial cells motivating the development of alternative and rapidly scalable vaccine inducing mucosal protective and long-lasting immunity. We have previously developed an immunologically optimized multi-neoepitopes-based peptide vaccine platform which has already demonstrated tolerance and efficacy in hundreds of lung cancer patients. Here, we present a multi-target CD8 T cell peptide COVID-19 vaccine design targeting several structural (S, M, N) and non-structural (NSPs) SARS-CoV-2 proteins with selected epitopes in conserved regions of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. We observed that a single subcutaneous injection of a serie of epitopes induces a robust immunogenicity in-vivo as measured by IFN{gamma} ELIspot. Upon tetramer characterization we found that this serie of epitopes induces a strong proportion of virus-specific CD8 T cells expressing CD103, CD44, CXCR3 and CD49a, the specific phenotype of tissue-resident memory T lymphocytes (Trm). Finally, we observed broad cellular responses, as characterized by IFN{gamma} production, upon restimulation with structural and non-structural protein-derived epitopes using blood T cells isolated from convalescent asymptomatic, moderate and severe COVID-19 patients. These data provide insights for further development of a second generation of COVID-19 vaccine focused on inducing lasting Th1-biased memory CD8 T cell sentinels protection using immunodominant epitopes naturally observed after SARS-CoV-2 infection resolution.,Read More

The Long Road Toward COVID-19 Herd Immunity: Vaccine Platform Technologies and Mass Immunization Strategies

There is an urgent need for effective countermeasures against the current emergence and accelerating expansion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Induction of herd immunity by mass vaccination has been a […]

Click here to view original web page at The Long Road Toward COVID-19 Herd Immunity: Vaccine Platform Technologies and Mass Immunization Strategies

How seroprevalence is helping us in the fight against COVID-19

Coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of a SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus particle isolated from a UK case of the disease Covid-19. PHE’s Head of immunisation Dr Mary Ramsay describes how testing blood samples is helping us gather crucial data on the […]

Click here to view original web page at How seroprevalence is helping us in the fight against COVID-19

A neutralizing human antibody binds to the N-terminal domain of the Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2

Abstract Developing therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 could be guided by the distribution of epitopes, not only on the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the Spike (S) protein, but also across the full Spike (S) protein. We isolated and characterized monoclonal […]

Click here to view original web page at A neutralizing human antibody binds to the N-terminal domain of the Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2

IgA dominates the early neutralizing antibody response to SARS-CoV-2

A major dogma in immunology has it that the IgM antibody response precedes secondary memory responses built on the production of IgG, IgA and, occasionaly, IgE. Here, we measured acute humoral responses to SARS-CoV-2, including the frequency of antibody-secreting […]

Click here to view original web page at IgA dominates the early neutralizing antibody response to SARS-CoV-2

Stockholm Won’t Reach Herd Immunity In May, Sweden’s Chief Epidemiologist Says

Sweden’s controversial approach to fighting the coronavirus pandemic has so far failed to produce the expected results, and there are calls within the country for the government to change its strategy. “We have a very vivid political debate,” Karin […]

Click here to view original web page at Stockholm Won’t Reach Herd Immunity In May, Sweden’s Chief Epidemiologist Says

Only 4.4% of French population infected by coronavirus – Pasteur institute

PARIS (Reuters) – A study led by the Pasteur Institute says a mere 4.4% of the French population – or 2.8 million people – have been infected by the novel coronavirus, much higher than the official count of cases […]

Click here to view original web page at Only 4.4% of French population infected by coronavirus – Pasteur institute

Cytokine storm intervention in the early stages of COVID-19 pneumonia.

Abstract Clinical intervention in patients with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has demonstrated a strong upregulation of cytokine production in patients who are critically ill with SARS-CoV2-induced pneumonia. In a retrospective study of 41 patients with COVID-19, most patients […]

Click here to view original web page at Cytokine storm intervention in the early stages of COVID-19 pneumonia.

The Current and Future State of Vaccines, Antivirals and Gene Therapies Against Emerging Coronaviruses

1 Department of Epidemiology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, United States 2 Curriculum in Genetics and Molecular Biology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, United States 3 Department […]

Click here to view original web page at The Current and Future State of Vaccines, Antivirals and Gene Therapies Against Emerging Coronaviruses