[PDF] COVID-19: An Insight into SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic Originated at Wuhan City in Hubei Province of China | Semantic Scholar


Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), originated at Wuhan city of China in early December 2019 has rapidly widespread with confirmed cases in almost every country across the world and has become a new global public health crisis. The etiological agent was designated as Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was originated in bats and transmits through respiratory droplets and surface contact and then by touching mouth, eyes, and nose. The World Health Organization coined the term COVID-19 and declared this novel coronavirus disease as a pandemic on March 11, 2020. The virus is highly contagious and the incubation period ranges between 2-14 days. The virus infects the human respiratory epithelial cells by binding through Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. Many infected people are either asymptomatic or develop a mild respiratory illness. The major clinical symptoms of the disease are fever, non-productive cough, fatigue, malaise, and breathlessness. Severe illness such as pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and death occurs in the elderly and patients with comorbid conditions. The case fatality rate is estimated to be 2-3%. The rapid surge was observed in new cases and COVID-19 related deaths outside of China since the beginning of March-2020. As of June 8, 2020 more than 7 million confirmed cases and > 400 thousand deaths were reported from 213 countries and territories. The disease is mainly diagnosed by the detection of viral RNA in nasopharyngeal swab or Broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Treatment is basically symptomatic and supportive. Several vaccines are still under various stages of clinical trials. Remdesivir was the first antiviral drug approved for treatment but its efficacy is yet to be determined. At present preventive measures such as contact, droplet, and airborne precautions are the main strategy to control the spread of the disease.

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